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Easton Rodriguez
Easton Rodriguez

Rc Univers 29 Manuall

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Rc Univers 29 Manuall

To examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving physical activity, diet, and/or weight-related behaviors amongst university/college students. Five online databases were searched (January 1970 to April 2014). Experimental study designs were eligible for inclusion. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer using a standardized form developed by the researchers and checked by a second reviewer. Data were described in a narrative synthesis and meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate. Study quality was also established. Forty-one studies were included; of these, 34 reported significant improvements in one of the key outcomes. Of the studies examining physical activity 18/29 yielded significant results, with meta-analysis demonstrating significant increases in moderate physical activity in intervention groups compared to control. Of the studies examining nutrition, 12/24 reported significantly improved outcomes; only 4/12 assessing weight loss outcomes found significant weight reduction. This appears to be the first systematic review of physical activity, diet and weight loss interventions targeting university and college students. Tertiary institutions are appropriate settings for implementing and evaluating lifestyle interventions, however more research is needed to improve such strategies.

Dietary intake patterns that align with national dietary guidelines are associated with reduced risk of developing chronic conditions [11,12], however recent research suggests tertiary students do not achieve these guidelines [13-15]. For instance, in the United States, university and college students have sub-optimal dietary habits compared to such recommendations [16]. Similarly, Australian tertiary students fail to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit (50%) and vegetables (90%) [2]. While students from the UK fail to consume the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables (88.7% and 83.5%, respectively) [17].

Higher education institutions are an appropriate setting to promote healthy lifestyles. First, universities and colleges have the potential to engage large numbers of students in behavior change interventions, and the estimated number of individuals participating in higher education is continuing to rise [25]. It is projected that student numbers in American colleges will reach 22 million in 2014, and that the number of students enrolled in higher education worldwide will reach 262 million by 2025, a marked increase from 178 million in 2010 [26]. Second, higher education institutions have access to a large proportion of students living away from home for the first time, and have the capacity to provide support and establish healthy behavioral patterns that may continue throughout the lifespan. Third, universities and colleges are regarded as organizations that follow high standards of practice which can establish research-based examples for surrounding communities to follow. This allows for the opportunity and responsibility to develop and implement the best available research evidence, and to set a benchmark for other groups to follow [27]. Universities and colleges have a range of facilities, resources and qualified staff, commonly including health professionals, ideal for implementing initiatives to target lifestyle-related health issues. Finally, the possibility that exists for students to deliver initiatives as a part of their study/training to become health professionals adds to the promise for tertiary education institutions as ideal settings for promoting healthy lifestyles.

A structured electronic search employing PRISMA reporting guidelines [30] was performed on health-focused intervention studies carried out in tertiary level educational institutions and published between January 1970 and April 2014. MEDLINE with full text, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC and ProQuest were systematically searched [22,31-34]. The following search terms were used: (university OR college) AND (health promotion OR intervention OR program OR education) AND (behavior OR physical activity OR exercise OR diet OR nutrition OR weight). Published articles in peer reviewed journals were considered for the review. Bibliographies of selected studies were also considered. Only manuscripts written in English were considered for the review. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for study inclusion, initially based on the title and abstract. Full texts were then retrieved and assessed for inclusion. A third reviewer was used to make the final decision in the case of discrepancies.

With few exceptions, participant numbers were surprisingly small given the large institutions from which participants were drawn. Additionally, participants were overwhelmingly female, which may be due in part to the higher percentage of females enrolled in some universities and colleges. This raises questions about the approaches used to recruit participants or the intrinsic appeal of the interventions trialed. Indeed, results from a questionnaire examining gender differences in the health habits of university students showed that males were less interested in nutrition advice and health-enhancing behaviors, suggesting that interventions targeting health behaviors in university/college students may need to be gender-specific to address the different needs and interests of both sexes [15].

Interventions that were embedded within university/college courses were effective at improving physical activity, nutrition and weight-related outcomes. Course-embedded interventions involve frequent face-to-face contact with facilitators. It has been suggested that frequent professional contact may improve health outcomes by enhancing vigilance and providing encouragement and support [76]. Additionally, interventions where students received feedback on their progress appeared to be more effective than simply attending lectures or receiving educational resources.

Universities and colleges are an ideal setting for implementation of health promotion programs as they support a large student population at key time for the development of lifestyle skills and behaviors. Students have access to world-class facilities, technology, and highly educated staff including a variety of health disciplines, all of which could contribute to the development of highly effective health promoting interventions. A number of studies in this review utilized university facilities, such as fitness centres and designated walking tracks, showing significant improvements in physical activity outcomes. Besides ease of access for students, use of existing facilities and resources is also cost-effective, which is often a major limitation of health promotion programs.

Tertiary education students within the university/college setting are ideal targets for lifestyle interventions aimed at improving health behaviors. Within this setting, students are often surrounded by an abundance of research expertise, multi-disciplinary health professionals, and world-class facilities and resources making this potentially an ideal health-promoting environment. Additionally, students are in a learning environment and are still at an age where health behaviors that impact on health later in life can be improved. Therefore, there is significant scope for implementation of lifestyle interventions to improve the health of this group that represents a significant proportion of our population.

The State Archives, in conjunction with Ohio's Department of Administrative Services (DAS) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP), formed the Electronic Records Committee (ERC) to draft policy and guidelines for electronic records. Membership, drawn from policymakers, records managers, IT personnel, archivists, and librarians from various state agencies, universities, libraries and historical societies, is limited to 30-35 people who are committed to working towards solutions to electronic records issues.

As the archives administration for the state of Ohio, Ohio History Connection organized the Ohio Network of American History Research (ONAHR) Centers in 1970 to provide for the preservation of historically valuable local government records. Composed of four state universities and Ohio's two largest historical organizations, the network members preserve and make available all forms of documentation relating to Ohio's past.

--> See the Instructions- RC-1. In the local government entity field use the municipality, county, township, school, library, or special taxing district name (e.g. Perry Township) and the department or unit in the unit field (e.g. Police Department), if applicable. Include a beginning and end-date for the records, as well as a description. Spell out acronyms or explain terms that may not be universally known.

--> See the Instructions- RC-2. In the local government entity field use the municipality, county, township, school, library, or special taxing district name (e.g. Perry Township) and the department or unit in the unit field, if applicable (e.g. Police Department). Do not include dates in your record series, unless the intention is to limit the record series to only those dates. Do include media types. Spell out acronyms or explain terms that may not be universally known. Well formulated descriptions help the State Archives to more accurately determine which records series will require a RC-3 form.

--> Absolutely. If a local historical society, university, or other institution is interested in your records, the institution is required to sign a deposit agreement with the State Archives that guarantees that the organization will provide the public unfettered access to the records, and store them properly. The government is required to document the transfer with an RC-1 or RC-3 sent to the State Archives.


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    Easton Rodriguez
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